‘modsecurity_crs_10_setup.conf’ is the base file for configuring ModSecurity, and should be included first. It configures some vital values, such as if the rules engine is off, in a detect-only mode, or fully active. It also defines score thresholds and default actions. Paranoid mode can be enabled here.
The first thing to do when setting up modsec is to look over this file and make sure you are happy with everything. There are some controls over logging here, and thresholds that can be adjusted. You can also configurate a MaxMind GeoIP database there for cross-referencing location.
Rule 900012 is of interest as it declares allowed HTTP methods, content mime types, HTTP protocol versions, restricted request extensions such as .exe, and prohibited HTTP headers. These are used by other rules (specifically the ‘30’ rules for HTTP policy), and can be altered if you are experiencing false positives.
Optional parts of the ‘setup’ file
Even though the ‘modsecurity_crs_10_setup.conf’ should really be about setup and configuration, it does contain some rules. Some of these are meta-rules that block based on accumulated scores. In fact, these are SecAction and not SecRule definitions, which is something we will look at later but for now it’s important to notice this subtle difference in the file - on first glance you might not see this.
Some of the SecRule and SecAction lines in the file are removed as comments, and have notes as to their function. This includes:
anomaly detection scoring
regression testing mode
HTTP policy limits, most of which tend to trigger false positives
content security policy (CSP) action
brute force protection
UTF encoding check
There are detailed comments in the file that explain the rule/action and the values you can adjust if you choose to enable it. Unfortunately it’s not completely clear in most cases why it has been disabled, but it’s possible to speculate that it either causes excessive false positives or has other side effects such as memory usage or reduced response times.
Apache module configuration
Some of the vital settings are in the module configuration for mod_security and need to be tuned to match not only the available resources on the machine but also the security needs.
There are four values mentioned in ‘modsecurity_crs_10_setup.conf’ that need to be set in the modsecurity.conf file for HTTPd:
SecRuleEngine has three possible values - On, Off, or DetectionOnly.
fully enables the rules engine and will block requests. This is the mode you want to use in a production setting.
completely disabled the rules engine, so ModSecurity will do nothing.
runs all the rules but instead of blocking requests it will write the matches to a log file. This is mostly useful for checking rules and preparing to enable the rule set. You can use the output in the log file to make sure that you are not blocking valid requests.
You can turn SecRequestBodyAccess on or off to control access to the request body. Disabling this stops ModSecurity from accessing POST requests, opening up exploitable huge holes. I suppose you could turn this off if you are completely blocking POST requests, such as a read-only RESTful service or a static file server like a CDN which only uses GET or HEAD requests as a performance optimisation, but in all normal circumstances this should be left in the default ‘on’ mode.
There are a number of parameters which can be tuned for this option to limit the memory usage and provide better control over the request body. There’s also a number of SecRule entries here that reinforce the security of the request body mostly around validating multipart boundaries, and enabling XML or JSON data processors.
Rule 200000; enable XML processor
for mime type text/xml the request body will be processed and validated as XML.
Rule 200001; enable JSON processor
request buffer limit, ten times the 128Kb of the in-memory limit.
request buffer data limit, without files. This should be set as low as possible according to the comment, but I would suggesting leaving this alone unless you have good reason to change it.
after this amount of data, the request body will be buffered to disk, which is both slow and unavoidable. Increasing this will obviously make large requests quicker to process but will also make it likely that you will be able to process fewer simultaneously.
When a request exceeds the limit, what should happen? The default is to reject the request.
Rule 200002; request body parse
A fairly obvious and straightforward rule - if the request body is no parsable, reject the request.
Rule 200003; multipart validation
This is a strict validation rule for multipart/form-data requests. In some cases it might be necessary to make this less strict or change it from ‘reject’ to ‘detect’ and just have it log a high-severity message. The guidance offered is not to remove this rule.
Rule 200004; stray multipart boundary
This rule looks for unmatched multipart boundaries and will deny requests that have a boundary that doesn’t have the right value. Some PDF documents may trigger this rule. This rule may also potentially be triggered by form fields that start with two hyphens. The message this rule presents in the log files is
"Multipart parser detected a possible unmatched boundary. This may be an impedence mismatch attack, a broken application or a broken connection. This is not a false positive. Check your application or client for errors."
which lays the blame squarely on either an attack or a broken application without giving much of a clue as to how to correct this.
ModSecurity is also able to process the response content, which allows it to log and block responses that contain errors such as stack traces or enforce compliance with PCI by preventing anything that looks like a credit card number from being included in the output.
The default is on, allowing ModSecurity to inspect the response body, and is required for some rules to work.
This defines the mimes types that should be inspected. The default is SecResponseBodyMimeType text/plain text/html text/xml as these are reasonable types to check. You may wish to add JSON to this list if you are using AJAX or dynamic data to ensure that you have no stack traces or information leaks.
This sets the buffer size for the response to help manage memory usage. The default is 524288 or 512Kb.
This defines what happens when we ‘break the bank’ in relation to the SecResponseBodyLimit setting. "SecResponseBodyLimitAction ProcessPartial" is the default, and will ignore the remaining content. This is a little less secure, but sufficient for most purposes.
The audit engine logs transactions. Basically it is capable of logging almost every request with some exceptions for 400 and 404 errors, and is usually set to log ‘Relevant Only’ transactions. This means transactions that have a warning or have caused an error.
There are two ways to configure messages in the audit log; globally, and per-rule using ctl. If you need to change the log information for a specific rule, you can.
The default configuration provided with the CRS rule set gives this set of instructions for the audit log:
# -- Audit log configuration ------------------------------------------------- # Log the transactions that are marked by a rule, as well as those that # trigger a server error (determined by a 5xx or 4xx, excluding 404, # level response status codes). # SecAuditEngine RelevantOnly SecAuditLogRelevantStatus "^(?:5|4(?!04))" # Log everything we know about a transaction. SecAuditLogParts ABIJDEFHZ # Use a single file for logging. This is much easier to look at, but # assumes that you will use the audit log only ocassionally. # SecAuditLogType Serial SecAuditLog /var/log/modsec_audit.log # Specify the path for concurrent audit logging. #SecAuditLogStorageDir /opt/modsecurity/var/audit/
controls if it logs nothing, relevant, or everything. Normally you wouldn’t want nothing, equally you usually wouldn’t want everything.
This is a regex that matches against the HTTP status code, which in the example configuration is 4xx except 404, and any 5xx class error.
The logging is highly configurable. This controls the level of detail that appears in the log. A and Z are mandatory.
ABIJDEFHZ gives a good view of the request/response.
ABIJDFHZ omits section E (the response body) and so reduces log size considerably at the expense of diagnostic information.
You probably won’t need to meddle with this too much, unless you have specific needs.
Serial or Concurrent.
Serial writes all the audit records to a single file, in the same way that most log files work. It blocks while writing takes place, so it can cause a bottleneck.
Concurrent creates a new file for each logged transaction. You have to use this if you need to use remote logging.
This is the file path to store the serial log or concurrent log index.
This is also where you can pipe the log to
mlogc to use remote
This is where concurrent log entries are created.
There are two settings to manage the maximums for the rules using PCRE - Perl Compatible Regular Expressions. This limit mitigates DoS attacks by preventing excessive recursion. When you hit this limit, ModSecurity with block the request with status 403 Forbidden and emit a message into the log ‘MSC_PCRE_LIMITS_EXCEEDED’ and the details of the rule it was processing at the time.
The default settings are:
SecPcreMatchLimit 1000 SecPcreMatchLimitRecursion 1000
There are tales online of folk increasing these, values of 150’000 are not uncommon. Be aware, and beware, this allows it to recurse to this maximum depth. Question if you expect any of the regex to do this when presented with valid data. Question if you think the default values are not reasonable. Question if you think the developer who set this value thought that a thousand recursions was safe in terms of false positives.
One strategy is to run the WAF in DetectionOnly mode and inspect the logs. If you ‘PCRE limits exceeded’ then increase this value by 500, restart Apache, and try the test again. When you are able to load all your pages and resources with all the cookies values (don’t forget external cookie set by analytics, et cetera), then you have a useful value. You might need to increase this again if you add custom rules, or include optional or experimental rules.
Other settings in modsecurity.conf
There’s quite a few other settings in the modsecurity.conf file, most of which are self-evident or can be ignored. It’s best that you read the file and adjust it according to the comments to have the right values.